Charles Dibble was the son of Wakeman and Jane (Nickerson) Dibble. His father worked as a laborer in Cornwall. His uncle, Silas Palmer, also served during the war.
Dibble enlisted with Company E of the 8th C.V.I. on September 25, 1861. He was promoted to Corporal on October 22, 1862 and to Second Lieutenant on April 18, 1865. Dibble was transferred to the 11th C.V.I. at the time of his promotion to Second Lieutenant, and he was promoted again, on May 12, 1865, to First Lieutenant.
While stationed at Lynchburg, Virginia, Dibble married Millie A. Watson, a woman he met there, on August 17, 1865. Their first child was born at Lynchburg in 1868.
Dibble joined the Regular Army 18th Infantry Regiment on February 23, 1866 and resigned on January 17, 1867. After leaving the military, Dibble worked as a tobacco inspector in Lynchburg. By 1880, Dibble and his family, which included seven children, had moved to Georgia, where he worked as a revenue official. He spent his final years in the National Soldiers Home at Johnson City, Tennessee.